In the past, I’ve ground a custom toolbit and clamped it in the lathe toolpost and then used the carriage traverse to run it along a workpiece in the lathe spindle. This has a couple of advantages: the workpiece is automatically centered and colinear with the cutting tool, and I can cut a slot the length of the lathe bed. However, it’s slow and it puts a lot of strain on the carriage rack, because that’s how the carriage traverses the bed: me twirling a wheel that runs a pinion that runs on the rack, and I have to take very fine cuts in steel or risk damaging the traverse mechanism.

I recently made a new cross slide for my lathe, that allows me to bolt workpieces to the cross slide, and was thinking about bolting a linear way onto it to make a nice smooth shaper mechanism, but then I realized that I already have a linear way: the stock lathe compound slide.

I’d seen pictures online of arm-powered shapers, using a long lever arm that the user pulls to power the shaper ram, and realized I could do the same as a bolt-on to the Atlas 618, without permanently modifying the lathe.

This is a really crude implementation, to see if it works.

I cut a piece of 1/2″ steel tubing the length of the compound slide plus its travel, welded a couple of nubs onto the bottom of the tubing so it fits on the cross-slide carriage between the edge of the compound swivel and the apron the Atlas 618 uses to protect the cross slide screw from chips, and slotted and drilled the tailstock end of the tubing. Then I made a bracket out of angle iron, that bolts into the end of the compound slide, after removing the compound screw and bracket. The angle iron bracket has a hole in it, parallel to the hole in the slotted tube clamped onto the cross-slide. Another piece of 1/2″ steel tubing, with matching holes, is bolted to both of those (with a short idler to prevent over-constrained movement.) Assembled but not on the machine, it looks like this:

Here it is on the lathe.

A top view

and a view of the idler and the compound attachment point.

The result is that I can traverse the compound slide rapidly with one hand, while advancing the tool into the workpiece with the cross slide screw, after tightening the cross slide way clamp. That way there’s no force on anything that can’t handle it. Traversing is quite quick (especially with a dab of oil on the cutting tool.)

Here’s a video me operating it.

One interesting side-effect of using the compound slide is that I can set the compound slide at a slight angle (slight, because it runs into the lever arm fulcrum clamped to the cross slide body.) That means I can cut tapered splines (I’m not sure why I would ever want that) or more usefully cut square tapers. Those used to be pretty common on bicycles, for instance.

Because of the geometry of the tool contact point and the lever arm contact point on the compound slide, my first attempt using a tool clamped in the quick change toolpost was unsuccessful: the leverage exerted by the tool point twisted the toolpost, and that resulted in the tool digging in even more, a feedback loop that made the whole attempt unsuccessful. Instead I milled a toolholder that mounts the tool tip directly in line with the axis of rotation of the compound slide, and now it works very well.

A picture of a random demo internal spline cut in 6061-T6. I was cutting about 0.010″ per traverse, using the Atlas 618’s locating pin and index holes on the headstock bull gear to accomplish the workpiece indexing.

A better solution will be to replace the outboard headstock bearing tensioning nut with a nut that has a keyway on it (gee, I wonder how I can make a keyway?) so I can stick index plates onto it, and then clamp the headstock rotation by an arm that goes down to the threading banjo bracket. That’s next.

]]>

See the video here:

https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=muSKFcst_FU

If you want design files I can provide them click here:

http://madscientisthut.com/wordpress/contact-us/

]]>

Click here for the shop page:STB80NF55-08T4

B80NF55-08 N-Channel MOSFET

Drain-Source Breakdown Voltage: 55 V

Continuous Drain Current: 80 A

Drain-Source On Resistance: 8 mOhms

Maximum Operating Temperature: + 175 C Package / Case: D2PAK

Cut Tape

For the datasheet click here:STB80NF55-08T4.pdf

If you wish to purchase more than 100, contact us for a discount.

$1.25 each

]]>Click here for the shop page: S4DNF60L

STS4DNF60L Dual N-Channel MOSFET

Drain-Source Breakdown Voltage: 60 V

Continuous Drain Current: 4 A

Drain-Source On Resistance: 55 mOhms

Maximum Operating Temperature: + 150 C Package / Case: SO-8

Cut Tape

For the datasheet click here:STS4DNF60L.pdf

If you wish to purchase more than 100, contact us for a discount.

$0.85 Each

]]>

I hope the information contained in the blog has been or is helpful to many people. As I approach retirement I will not be able to fund the web server fees soon. Since I will be retiring soon I plan on starting to work on the blog section once again with many exciting projects, I have been absent on the blog since the corporation I currently work for owns everything you do including in your off time, they consider my home time work as their intellectual property….. If you could help with any donation amount (even as small 1$) this will help keep the site up and running. See link below:

]]>Wow! I was hooked I bought a the starter set with the drill and 1/4 inch impact driver with charger and a battery for $119.00 and 3 of the 1.5A/hr batteries.

I am excited about having these low cost Kobalt 24V Li-ion batteries since they will be more useful as power sources for other projects. I quickly designed an adapter on the laser cutter out of acrylic that I could plug into the battery.

First project to use the battery pack on: A dual USB power outlet and an 800 lumen LED light

I installed a DC-DC boost board to produce the 28V needed for the series LED string and a DC-DC buck to produce the 5V needed for the USB ports.

Great it works, lets test it.

Wow runs for about 3.5 hours with the LEDs running.

Doh it runs the batteries below their critical cutoff point of 15V. Yikes this will destroy the batteries in no time. (apparently these batteries do not have a low voltage cutoff built into them)

Hmm time for a low voltage cutoff circuit. So here is the simplistic circuit that I came up with: It cuts the battery off at ~18.2V and then with a little hysteresis it will turn back on again at 19.8V I figured this was a good trade off. This is simulated, I am ordering the parts to see how the circuit will perform. I plan on using a TLV431 since it will use less current to function and the PMOS will also be a different part. Edit: I just looked at the datasheet for the TLV431 and it is a low voltage part so a nogo there.

Circuit description:

TLV431 2.5V reference

R1 and R2 form a divider for 2.5V (the switching point of the TL431)

R3 Bias for TL431 and PMOS Gate

R5 creates the hysteresis ( this is so that we do not oscillate when switching the battery off )

R4 is just a simulation load ( this is where your battery powered circuit will be )

M1 is a P-CH MOS FET sized accordingly for the load. ( I like a low rdson value and at least 2x the voltage for the rating so 48V or greater PMOS)

V1 is a simulation voltage source that is programmed to run from 24V @0.0S to 18V@0.5S then back to 24V@1.0S

Red Trace is simulation load current, Green trace is simulation Battery Voltage

]]>http://glowforge.com/referred/?kid=bdnCeN

Use this link for another $100.00 off of your order, we also get $100.00 off if you buy one using this link!

We have been in the market for a decent laser cutter for some time now. The low cost option was to get something from China for about 1K with software that leaves so much to be desired and hardware that is very questionable or you could spend 10K or more on a US made laser cutter with some descent software and hardware.

See this great video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0R3mMUsHFvU

Well here is what sold me on the Glowforge laser cutter:

- US made laser cutter
- Pre-order price is 50% off
- The laser uses two cameras for alignment of the material, it takes a picture of the material on the laser bed, then lets you move the design on the material by just dragging it on the screen.
- Any software updates are free forever
- Cuts: wood, fabric, leather, acrylic, chocolate, delrin, rubber, etc…
- Can cut from both sides using second high magnification camera to align the back die of the cut, which means you may be able to cut 1/2inch plywood.
- You can draw on the material and it will trace your drawing using the laser (this was a major selling feature for me)
- The laser automatically focuses up to 0.5 inches over the surface of the material as it is cutting ( also a major selling feature for me)
- The work area is 12″x20″, this is a very usable size for me.
- 40Watt zero mode (high quality, small spot size) CO2 Laser
- sealed optics (no cleaning of optics)
- no external cooling system
- no external compressor required

]]>

As self-hosted versions of wordpress appear to do a lousy job of formatting, and python is formatting-specific, I’ll put the code on github where I can guarantee that it looks the way it should: https://github.com/smellsofbikes/AS5040_python_beaglebone

———————————————

#!/usr/bin/python

import Adafruit_BBIO.GPIO as GPIO

import time

def read_raw_val(data, chip_select, clock):

GPIO.setup(data, GPIO.IN)

GPIO.setup(chip_select, GPIO.OUT)

GPIO.setup(clock, GPIO.OUT)

a = 0

output = 0

readbit = 0

GPIO.output(chip_select, GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(0.01)

GPIO.output(clock, GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(0.01)

GPIO.output(chip_select, GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(0.01)

GPIO.output(clock, GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(0.01)

while a < 16:

GPIO.output(clock, GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(0.01)

readbit = GPIO.input(data)

output = ((output << 1) + readbit)

GPIO.output(clock, GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(0.01)

a += 1

return output

while 1:

rawval = read_raw_val(“P9_15”, “P9_11”, “P9_12”)

print “read: ” + str(rawval)

print “raw rotation: ” + str(rawval >> 6)

time.sleep(1)

——————————————-

I still need to strip and decode errors, extend it another two bits for the AS5045, and make the whole thing into an importable library.

Note that on the Beaglebone, the Adafruit GPIO library doesn’t yet fully support setting pull-up or pull-down resistors on pins. As such, you may have trouble with some pins not working. I know these three pins work, because I’ve tested them. The code should work for Raspberry Pi without any problem, and at some point I’ll port this to Bonescript, where I do have control over setting the internal pull-up and pull-down resistors, so any set of I/O pins can be used.

]]>Well since the PWM output is only capable of 61069 steps, it really is not 16 bits, as 16 bit resolution would allow for 65535 discrete steps so I will call it a 15+ bit DAC.

Now that we actually have the DAC working, it is time to verify how well it works. Here is a look at some of the data from the first unit I tested but first a quick description of how the data was taken for this: I set up the PWM to take a step approximately every 1.2 seconds. I programmed the PWM to start from zero then when it reached 61069 it would start back down again. The PWM output was fed through the 4th order RC filter. To take the DC value I used an 18bit measure system (over +/-10V) that was programmed to average a about 16,000 measurements every 950mS from the filter output. We ended up with a total of 72064 data points over the 61069 output steps. Since I did not fully synchronize the data measured with every step taken the actual INL and DNL are approximate. The measured values I came up with for this Arduino Mini Pro board:

LSB = ~ 0.000076V (76uV)

INL= ~ 0.00225V (2.25mV)

DNL= ~ 0.0015V (1.5mV)

Min Measurement = 0.00313686V

Maximum Measurement = 4.64705V

Gain error = 0.928782628 ( Hmm.. this seems to explain the step response we were seeing on the scope capture in the filter article, when I was expecting a 409mV step and was seeing about 374mV on the scope)

Offset error = 0.00313686V

The DNL is really bad news. Why? Because it means effectively we are losing a little more than 4 bits of resolution. It is like this: From step to step there can be an error of 1.5mV so there is no point in looking for anything smaller than 1.5mV then for the full scale range of 4.647V divided by 1.5mV gives us about 3100 discrete values which is a little more than 11 bits of resolution. I really need to see if this is an inherent problem with the PWM generator design or if it is just an issue with this one device. So I will end up running this test again on another one or two more devices.

Below are graphs of the actual data for the first device, and also a copy of the raw data if you are interested in looking it over.

Here is a copy of the raw data, you will need office 2010 to open this since it has more than 65,535 rows of data

This is a graph of the measured data:

So our 15+ bit DAC seems to work pretty well.

To calculate INL We took the end points of the data and subtracted a linear line from the actual data taken and ended up with a worst case measurement of about 0.00225V or approximately an error of 0.5% of the expected programmed output.

Here is what the INL graph looks like:

To calculate DNL We just took every data point and subtracted the previous measurement and graphed the result. This resulted in about a 0.0015V error from measurement to measurement, really this is a pseudo DNL, this would work much better with a synchronized step to measurement.

Here is a look at the DNL graph:

So if you are wondering why is the DNL getting wider, lets examine the output a little closer.

Here is the output for several steps around 0.5V, looks pretty decent….

Here is the output for several steps around 2.5V, starting to see a real monotonicity issue here. I am going to take a guess that this part has some divider issue that is occurring on every forth step (it is the 3rd bit in the clock divider that may be does not do what is expected)

Here is the output for several steps around 4.5V and here it is getting close to the maximum output and where the worst case DNL was happening.

]]>

Starting with simulating the filter, I found that a fourth order RC filter would suit my needs for getting a nice DC level out of the PWM signal. I am expecting less than 1mV peak to peak with this filter. The filter is a little slow for large steps but for what I am doing it should be fine. The filter bandwidth is fc = 15.9154943092[Hz]

There is a nice filter calculator page here: http://sim.okawa-denshi.jp/en/PWMtool.php

Here is a look at the filter in LTSpice:

This is what each section of the filter looks like in the simulation:

If you want to play with this in LTSpice, you can download this file here: PWM_131Hz_filter

Now it is time to go cut it on the LPKF

After the LPKF and some solder

Actual DC output from the filter. I programmed a PWM to 10000, wait for 2S then set the PWM to 15000, wait 2 seconds again, repeat. It settles in less than a half second with this filter, very close to the simulation values, see above. I was expecting around a 409mV change in voltage but was only getting 374mV. Something to look into…

]]>

In order to make a high resolution DC source we need a 16 bit PWM output from the Arduino. The standard libraries give you access to 8bits on the PWM pins, this only gives 256 discrete levels, if you had 16bits it will yield 65535 steps. Timer1 on the Mini Pro and UNO is capable of going into 16bit mode. With just a little Googling I found a library that give access to the 16bit timer modes, as well as letting you reprogram the PWM output frequency, the library was created by the user ‘runnerup’ AKA Sam Knight (as the copyright header in the lib indicates) in the Arduino forums: Here

The library is located here: PWM Frequency Library , the library also is supposed to work on both the Arduino Mega and UNO.

Timer1 is the only 16bit timer on the atmega328 (UNO and Mini Pro) and it only comes out on two pins, 9 and 10. If you were to use the Mega it has many more pins capable of 16 bit mode on the PWM outputs. I got the below timer/bit/pins table from: Advanced Arduino: direct use of ATmega counter/timers

timer | bits | channel | Arduino pin | Mega pin |
---|---|---|---|---|

timer0 | 8 | A | 6 | 13 |

timer0 | 8 | B | 5 | 4 |

timer1 | 16 | A | 9 | 11 |

timer1 | 16 | B | 10 | 12 |

timer2 | 8 | A | 11 | 10 |

timer2 | 8 | B | 3 | 9 |

timer3 | 16 | A | – | 5 |

timer3 | 16 | B | – | 2 |

timer3 | 16 | C | – | 3 |

timer4 | 16 | A | – | 6 |

timer4 | 16 | B | – | 7 |

timer4 | 16 | C | – | 8 |

timer5 | 16 | A | – | 44 |

timer5 | 16 | B | – | 45 |

timer5 | 16 | C | – | 46 |

Being able to reprogram the frequency is very important since it has an effect on the actual resolution that can be achieved. See the table at the bottom for an output from the demo program from the PWM Frequency library that shows the differences for frequency to resolution. Since 131 Hz gives almost 16 bits of resolution at 61069 steps, this is what frequency I am going to use as I experiment. This will give approximately 81uV DC filtered step sizes on average using a 5V Mini Pro, we will try to verify this later, the best meter I have here is good for 100uV resolution in the 11V range, I will try to borrow one that has higher resolution in the next couple of weeks.

So lets try it out…

I wrote a quick program to try a few things: first did the frequency set? second does high resolution PWM work on both channels 9 and 10 independently ( there was a note in the library that you would lose the second channel )? third is it really high resolution?

We set PWM on channel 9 and 10 separately at a frequency of 131HZ ( reciprocal of 131Hz is 0.0076335…. seconds) the period should be about 7.63mS. See screen shot, yes to both of those!

Now does the 16 bit resolution work. The reciprocal of 131Hz divided by 61069 steps is ~125nS. This picture shows where I set the PWM to a setting of 1. Yes it works!

Here it is with PWM set to 2 and yes it is now ~250nS

Demonstrate Frequency Effect On Resolution Table ( I only ran it to 3931 HZ, but you get the idea….)

1 | Hz | 7813 | steps | 12 | bits |

11 | Hz | 2841 | steps | 11 | bits |

21 | Hz | 5953 | steps | 12 | bits |

31 | Hz | 4033 | steps | 11 | bits |

41 | Hz | 3049 | steps | 11 | bits |

51 | Hz | 2451 | steps | 11 | bits |

61 | Hz | 2050 | steps | 11 | bits |

71 | Hz | 14085 | steps | 13 | bits |

81 | Hz | 12346 | steps | 13 | bits |

91 | Hz | 10990 | steps | 13 | bits |

101 | Hz | 9901 | steps | 13 | bits |

111 | Hz | 9010 | steps | 13 | bits |

121 | Hz | 8265 | steps | 13 | bits |

131 | Hz | 61069 | steps | 15 | bits |

141 | Hz | 56738 | steps | 15 | bits |

151 | Hz | 52981 | steps | 15 | bits |

161 | Hz | 49690 | steps | 15 | bits |

171 | Hz | 46784 | steps | 15 | bits |

181 | Hz | 44199 | steps | 15 | bits |

191 | Hz | 41885 | steps | 15 | bits |

201 | Hz | 39801 | steps | 15 | bits |

211 | Hz | 37915 | steps | 15 | bits |

221 | Hz | 36200 | steps | 15 | bits |

231 | Hz | 34633 | steps | 15 | bits |

241 | Hz | 33196 | steps | 15 | bits |

251 | Hz | 31873 | steps | 14 | bits |

261 | Hz | 30652 | steps | 14 | bits |

271 | Hz | 29521 | steps | 14 | bits |

281 | Hz | 28470 | steps | 14 | bits |

291 | Hz | 27492 | steps | 14 | bits |

301 | Hz | 26579 | steps | 14 | bits |

311 | Hz | 25724 | steps | 14 | bits |

321 | Hz | 24923 | steps | 14 | bits |

331 | Hz | 24170 | steps | 14 | bits |

341 | Hz | 23461 | steps | 14 | bits |

351 | Hz | 22793 | steps | 14 | bits |

361 | Hz | 22161 | steps | 14 | bits |

371 | Hz | 21564 | steps | 14 | bits |

381 | Hz | 20998 | steps | 14 | bits |

391 | Hz | 20461 | steps | 14 | bits |

401 | Hz | 19951 | steps | 14 | bits |

411 | Hz | 19465 | steps | 14 | bits |

421 | Hz | 19003 | steps | 14 | bits |

431 | Hz | 18562 | steps | 14 | bits |

441 | Hz | 18141 | steps | 14 | bits |

451 | Hz | 17739 | steps | 14 | bits |

461 | Hz | 17354 | steps | 14 | bits |

471 | Hz | 16986 | steps | 14 | bits |

481 | Hz | 16633 | steps | 14 | bits |

491 | Hz | 16294 | steps | 13 | bits |

501 | Hz | 15969 | steps | 13 | bits |

511 | Hz | 15656 | steps | 13 | bits |

521 | Hz | 15356 | steps | 13 | bits |

531 | Hz | 15066 | steps | 13 | bits |

541 | Hz | 14788 | steps | 13 | bits |

551 | Hz | 14520 | steps | 13 | bits |

561 | Hz | 14261 | steps | 13 | bits |

571 | Hz | 14011 | steps | 13 | bits |

581 | Hz | 13770 | steps | 13 | bits |

591 | Hz | 13537 | steps | 13 | bits |

601 | Hz | 13312 | steps | 13 | bits |

611 | Hz | 13094 | steps | 13 | bits |

621 | Hz | 12883 | steps | 13 | bits |

631 | Hz | 12679 | steps | 13 | bits |

641 | Hz | 12481 | steps | 13 | bits |

651 | Hz | 12289 | steps | 13 | bits |

661 | Hz | 12103 | steps | 13 | bits |

671 | Hz | 11923 | steps | 13 | bits |

681 | Hz | 11748 | steps | 13 | bits |

691 | Hz | 11578 | steps | 13 | bits |

701 | Hz | 11413 | steps | 13 | bits |

711 | Hz | 11252 | steps | 13 | bits |

721 | Hz | 11096 | steps | 13 | bits |

731 | Hz | 10944 | steps | 13 | bits |

741 | Hz | 10797 | steps | 13 | bits |

751 | Hz | 10653 | steps | 13 | bits |

761 | Hz | 10513 | steps | 13 | bits |

771 | Hz | 10377 | steps | 13 | bits |

781 | Hz | 10244 | steps | 13 | bits |

791 | Hz | 10114 | steps | 13 | bits |

801 | Hz | 9988 | steps | 13 | bits |

811 | Hz | 9865 | steps | 13 | bits |

821 | Hz | 9745 | steps | 13 | bits |

831 | Hz | 9627 | steps | 13 | bits |

841 | Hz | 9513 | steps | 13 | bits |

851 | Hz | 9401 | steps | 13 | bits |

861 | Hz | 9292 | steps | 13 | bits |

871 | Hz | 9185 | steps | 13 | bits |

881 | Hz | 9081 | steps | 13 | bits |

891 | Hz | 8979 | steps | 13 | bits |

901 | Hz | 8880 | steps | 13 | bits |

911 | Hz | 8782 | steps | 13 | bits |

921 | Hz | 8687 | steps | 13 | bits |

931 | Hz | 8593 | steps | 13 | bits |

941 | Hz | 8502 | steps | 13 | bits |

951 | Hz | 8413 | steps | 13 | bits |

961 | Hz | 8325 | steps | 13 | bits |

971 | Hz | 8239 | steps | 13 | bits |

981 | Hz | 8155 | steps | 12 | bits |

991 | Hz | 8073 | steps | 12 | bits |

1001 | Hz | 7993 | steps | 12 | bits |

1011 | Hz | 7913 | steps | 12 | bits |

1021 | Hz | 7836 | steps | 12 | bits |

1031 | Hz | 7760 | steps | 12 | bits |

1041 | Hz | 7685 | steps | 12 | bits |

1051 | Hz | 7612 | steps | 12 | bits |

1061 | Hz | 7541 | steps | 12 | bits |

1071 | Hz | 7470 | steps | 12 | bits |

1081 | Hz | 7401 | steps | 12 | bits |

1091 | Hz | 7333 | steps | 12 | bits |

1101 | Hz | 7267 | steps | 12 | bits |

1111 | Hz | 7201 | steps | 12 | bits |

1121 | Hz | 7137 | steps | 12 | bits |

1131 | Hz | 7074 | steps | 12 | bits |

1141 | Hz | 7012 | steps | 12 | bits |

1151 | Hz | 6951 | steps | 12 | bits |

1161 | Hz | 6891 | steps | 12 | bits |

1171 | Hz | 6832 | steps | 12 | bits |

1181 | Hz | 6774 | steps | 12 | bits |

1191 | Hz | 6718 | steps | 12 | bits |

1201 | Hz | 6662 | steps | 12 | bits |

1211 | Hz | 6607 | steps | 12 | bits |

1221 | Hz | 6553 | steps | 12 | bits |

1231 | Hz | 6499 | steps | 12 | bits |

1241 | Hz | 6447 | steps | 12 | bits |

1251 | Hz | 6395 | steps | 12 | bits |

1261 | Hz | 6345 | steps | 12 | bits |

1271 | Hz | 6295 | steps | 12 | bits |

1281 | Hz | 6246 | steps | 12 | bits |

1291 | Hz | 6197 | steps | 12 | bits |

1301 | Hz | 6150 | steps | 12 | bits |

1311 | Hz | 6103 | steps | 12 | bits |

1321 | Hz | 6057 | steps | 12 | bits |

1331 | Hz | 6011 | steps | 12 | bits |

1341 | Hz | 5966 | steps | 12 | bits |

1351 | Hz | 5922 | steps | 12 | bits |

1361 | Hz | 5879 | steps | 12 | bits |

1371 | Hz | 5836 | steps | 12 | bits |

1381 | Hz | 5793 | steps | 12 | bits |

1391 | Hz | 5752 | steps | 12 | bits |

1401 | Hz | 5711 | steps | 12 | bits |

1411 | Hz | 5670 | steps | 12 | bits |

1421 | Hz | 5630 | steps | 12 | bits |

1431 | Hz | 5591 | steps | 12 | bits |

1441 | Hz | 5552 | steps | 12 | bits |

1451 | Hz | 5514 | steps | 12 | bits |

1461 | Hz | 5476 | steps | 12 | bits |

1471 | Hz | 5439 | steps | 12 | bits |

1481 | Hz | 5402 | steps | 12 | bits |

1491 | Hz | 5366 | steps | 12 | bits |

1501 | Hz | 5330 | steps | 12 | bits |

1511 | Hz | 5295 | steps | 12 | bits |

1521 | Hz | 5260 | steps | 12 | bits |

1531 | Hz | 5226 | steps | 12 | bits |

1541 | Hz | 5192 | steps | 12 | bits |

1551 | Hz | 5158 | steps | 12 | bits |

1561 | Hz | 5125 | steps | 12 | bits |

1571 | Hz | 5093 | steps | 12 | bits |

1581 | Hz | 5061 | steps | 12 | bits |

1591 | Hz | 5029 | steps | 12 | bits |

1601 | Hz | 4997 | steps | 12 | bits |

1611 | Hz | 4966 | steps | 12 | bits |

1621 | Hz | 4936 | steps | 12 | bits |

1631 | Hz | 4905 | steps | 12 | bits |

1641 | Hz | 4876 | steps | 12 | bits |

1651 | Hz | 4846 | steps | 12 | bits |

1661 | Hz | 4817 | steps | 12 | bits |

1671 | Hz | 4788 | steps | 12 | bits |

1681 | Hz | 4760 | steps | 12 | bits |

1691 | Hz | 4731 | steps | 12 | bits |

1701 | Hz | 4704 | steps | 12 | bits |

1711 | Hz | 4676 | steps | 12 | bits |

1721 | Hz | 4649 | steps | 12 | bits |

1731 | Hz | 4622 | steps | 12 | bits |

1741 | Hz | 4596 | steps | 12 | bits |

1751 | Hz | 4569 | steps | 12 | bits |

1761 | Hz | 4543 | steps | 12 | bits |

1771 | Hz | 4518 | steps | 12 | bits |

1781 | Hz | 4492 | steps | 12 | bits |

1791 | Hz | 4467 | steps | 12 | bits |

1801 | Hz | 4442 | steps | 12 | bits |

1811 | Hz | 4418 | steps | 12 | bits |

1821 | Hz | 4394 | steps | 12 | bits |

1831 | Hz | 4370 | steps | 12 | bits |

1841 | Hz | 4346 | steps | 12 | bits |

1851 | Hz | 4322 | steps | 12 | bits |

1861 | Hz | 4299 | steps | 12 | bits |

1871 | Hz | 4276 | steps | 12 | bits |

1881 | Hz | 4254 | steps | 12 | bits |

1891 | Hz | 4231 | steps | 12 | bits |

1901 | Hz | 4209 | steps | 12 | bits |

1911 | Hz | 4187 | steps | 12 | bits |

1921 | Hz | 4165 | steps | 12 | bits |

1931 | Hz | 4143 | steps | 12 | bits |

1941 | Hz | 4122 | steps | 12 | bits |

1951 | Hz | 4101 | steps | 12 | bits |

1961 | Hz | 4080 | steps | 11 | bits |

1971 | Hz | 4059 | steps | 11 | bits |

1981 | Hz | 4039 | steps | 11 | bits |

1991 | Hz | 4019 | steps | 11 | bits |

2001 | Hz | 3999 | steps | 11 | bits |

2011 | Hz | 3979 | steps | 11 | bits |

2021 | Hz | 3959 | steps | 11 | bits |

2031 | Hz | 3939 | steps | 11 | bits |

2041 | Hz | 3920 | steps | 11 | bits |

2051 | Hz | 3901 | steps | 11 | bits |

2061 | Hz | 3882 | steps | 11 | bits |

2071 | Hz | 3863 | steps | 11 | bits |

2081 | Hz | 3845 | steps | 11 | bits |

2091 | Hz | 3826 | steps | 11 | bits |

2101 | Hz | 3808 | steps | 11 | bits |

2111 | Hz | 3790 | steps | 11 | bits |

2121 | Hz | 3772 | steps | 11 | bits |

2131 | Hz | 3755 | steps | 11 | bits |

2141 | Hz | 3737 | steps | 11 | bits |

2151 | Hz | 3720 | steps | 11 | bits |

2161 | Hz | 3702 | steps | 11 | bits |

2171 | Hz | 3685 | steps | 11 | bits |

2181 | Hz | 3669 | steps | 11 | bits |

2191 | Hz | 3652 | steps | 11 | bits |

2201 | Hz | 3635 | steps | 11 | bits |

2211 | Hz | 3619 | steps | 11 | bits |

2221 | Hz | 3602 | steps | 11 | bits |

2231 | Hz | 3586 | steps | 11 | bits |

2241 | Hz | 3570 | steps | 11 | bits |

2251 | Hz | 3554 | steps | 11 | bits |

2261 | Hz | 3539 | steps | 11 | bits |

2271 | Hz | 3523 | steps | 11 | bits |

2281 | Hz | 3508 | steps | 11 | bits |

2291 | Hz | 3492 | steps | 11 | bits |

2301 | Hz | 3477 | steps | 11 | bits |

2311 | Hz | 3462 | steps | 11 | bits |

2321 | Hz | 3447 | steps | 11 | bits |

2331 | Hz | 3433 | steps | 11 | bits |

2341 | Hz | 3418 | steps | 11 | bits |

2351 | Hz | 3403 | steps | 11 | bits |

2361 | Hz | 3389 | steps | 11 | bits |

2371 | Hz | 3375 | steps | 11 | bits |

2381 | Hz | 3360 | steps | 11 | bits |

2391 | Hz | 3346 | steps | 11 | bits |

2401 | Hz | 3332 | steps | 11 | bits |

2411 | Hz | 3319 | steps | 11 | bits |

2421 | Hz | 3305 | steps | 11 | bits |

2431 | Hz | 3291 | steps | 11 | bits |

2441 | Hz | 3278 | steps | 11 | bits |

2451 | Hz | 3264 | steps | 11 | bits |

2461 | Hz | 3251 | steps | 11 | bits |

2471 | Hz | 3238 | steps | 11 | bits |

2481 | Hz | 3225 | steps | 11 | bits |

2491 | Hz | 3212 | steps | 11 | bits |

2501 | Hz | 3199 | steps | 11 | bits |

2511 | Hz | 3186 | steps | 11 | bits |

2521 | Hz | 3174 | steps | 11 | bits |

2531 | Hz | 3161 | steps | 11 | bits |

2541 | Hz | 3149 | steps | 11 | bits |

2551 | Hz | 3137 | steps | 11 | bits |

2561 | Hz | 3124 | steps | 11 | bits |

2571 | Hz | 3112 | steps | 11 | bits |

2581 | Hz | 3100 | steps | 11 | bits |

2591 | Hz | 3088 | steps | 11 | bits |

2601 | Hz | 3076 | steps | 11 | bits |

2611 | Hz | 3064 | steps | 11 | bits |

2621 | Hz | 3053 | steps | 11 | bits |

2631 | Hz | 3041 | steps | 11 | bits |

2641 | Hz | 3030 | steps | 11 | bits |

2651 | Hz | 3018 | steps | 11 | bits |

2661 | Hz | 3007 | steps | 11 | bits |

2671 | Hz | 2996 | steps | 11 | bits |

2681 | Hz | 2984 | steps | 11 | bits |

2691 | Hz | 2973 | steps | 11 | bits |

2701 | Hz | 2962 | steps | 11 | bits |

2711 | Hz | 2951 | steps | 11 | bits |

2721 | Hz | 2941 | steps | 11 | bits |

2731 | Hz | 2930 | steps | 11 | bits |

2741 | Hz | 2919 | steps | 11 | bits |

2751 | Hz | 2909 | steps | 11 | bits |

2761 | Hz | 2898 | steps | 11 | bits |

2771 | Hz | 2888 | steps | 11 | bits |

2781 | Hz | 2877 | steps | 11 | bits |

2791 | Hz | 2867 | steps | 11 | bits |

2801 | Hz | 2857 | steps | 11 | bits |

2811 | Hz | 2846 | steps | 11 | bits |

2821 | Hz | 2836 | steps | 11 | bits |

2831 | Hz | 2826 | steps | 11 | bits |

2841 | Hz | 2816 | steps | 11 | bits |

2851 | Hz | 2807 | steps | 11 | bits |

2861 | Hz | 2797 | steps | 11 | bits |

2871 | Hz | 2787 | steps | 11 | bits |

2881 | Hz | 2777 | steps | 11 | bits |

2891 | Hz | 2768 | steps | 11 | bits |

2901 | Hz | 2758 | steps | 11 | bits |

2911 | Hz | 2749 | steps | 11 | bits |

2921 | Hz | 2739 | steps | 11 | bits |

2931 | Hz | 2730 | steps | 11 | bits |

2941 | Hz | 2721 | steps | 11 | bits |

2952 | Hz | 2711 | steps | 11 | bits |

2961 | Hz | 2702 | steps | 11 | bits |

2971 | Hz | 2693 | steps | 11 | bits |

2981 | Hz | 2684 | steps | 11 | bits |

2991 | Hz | 2675 | steps | 11 | bits |

3001 | Hz | 2666 | steps | 11 | bits |

3012 | Hz | 2657 | steps | 11 | bits |

3021 | Hz | 2649 | steps | 11 | bits |

3031 | Hz | 2640 | steps | 11 | bits |

3041 | Hz | 2631 | steps | 11 | bits |

3051 | Hz | 2623 | steps | 11 | bits |

3061 | Hz | 2614 | steps | 11 | bits |

3071 | Hz | 2606 | steps | 11 | bits |

3081 | Hz | 2597 | steps | 11 | bits |

3091 | Hz | 2589 | steps | 11 | bits |

3101 | Hz | 2580 | steps | 11 | bits |

3111 | Hz | 2572 | steps | 11 | bits |

3121 | Hz | 2564 | steps | 11 | bits |

3131 | Hz | 2556 | steps | 11 | bits |

3142 | Hz | 2547 | steps | 11 | bits |

3152 | Hz | 2539 | steps | 11 | bits |

3162 | Hz | 2531 | steps | 11 | bits |

3172 | Hz | 2523 | steps | 11 | bits |

3182 | Hz | 2515 | steps | 11 | bits |

3191 | Hz | 2508 | steps | 11 | bits |

3201 | Hz | 2500 | steps | 11 | bits |

3211 | Hz | 2492 | steps | 11 | bits |

3221 | Hz | 2484 | steps | 11 | bits |

3231 | Hz | 2477 | steps | 11 | bits |

3241 | Hz | 2469 | steps | 11 | bits |

3252 | Hz | 2461 | steps | 11 | bits |

3261 | Hz | 2454 | steps | 11 | bits |

3271 | Hz | 2446 | steps | 11 | bits |

3281 | Hz | 2439 | steps | 11 | bits |

3292 | Hz | 2431 | steps | 11 | bits |

3301 | Hz | 2424 | steps | 11 | bits |

3311 | Hz | 2417 | steps | 11 | bits |

3322 | Hz | 2409 | steps | 11 | bits |

3331 | Hz | 2402 | steps | 11 | bits |

3341 | Hz | 2395 | steps | 11 | bits |

3351 | Hz | 2388 | steps | 11 | bits |

3361 | Hz | 2381 | steps | 11 | bits |

3371 | Hz | 2374 | steps | 11 | bits |

3381 | Hz | 2367 | steps | 11 | bits |

3391 | Hz | 2360 | steps | 11 | bits |

3401 | Hz | 2353 | steps | 11 | bits |

3411 | Hz | 2346 | steps | 11 | bits |

3421 | Hz | 2339 | steps | 11 | bits |

3432 | Hz | 2332 | steps | 11 | bits |

3442 | Hz | 2325 | steps | 11 | bits |

3451 | Hz | 2319 | steps | 11 | bits |

3461 | Hz | 2312 | steps | 11 | bits |

3472 | Hz | 2305 | steps | 11 | bits |

3481 | Hz | 2299 | steps | 11 | bits |

3491 | Hz | 2292 | steps | 11 | bits |

3501 | Hz | 2286 | steps | 11 | bits |

3511 | Hz | 2279 | steps | 11 | bits |

3521 | Hz | 2273 | steps | 11 | bits |

3532 | Hz | 2266 | steps | 11 | bits |

3541 | Hz | 2260 | steps | 11 | bits |

3552 | Hz | 2253 | steps | 11 | bits |

3561 | Hz | 2247 | steps | 11 | bits |

3571 | Hz | 2241 | steps | 11 | bits |

3581 | Hz | 2235 | steps | 11 | bits |

3592 | Hz | 2228 | steps | 11 | bits |

3601 | Hz | 2222 | steps | 11 | bits |

3611 | Hz | 2216 | steps | 11 | bits |

3621 | Hz | 2210 | steps | 11 | bits |

3631 | Hz | 2204 | steps | 11 | bits |

3641 | Hz | 2198 | steps | 11 | bits |

3651 | Hz | 2192 | steps | 11 | bits |

3661 | Hz | 2186 | steps | 11 | bits |

3671 | Hz | 2180 | steps | 11 | bits |

3681 | Hz | 2174 | steps | 11 | bits |

3691 | Hz | 2168 | steps | 11 | bits |

3701 | Hz | 2162 | steps | 11 | bits |

3712 | Hz | 2156 | steps | 11 | bits |

3722 | Hz | 2150 | steps | 11 | bits |

3731 | Hz | 2145 | steps | 11 | bits |

3741 | Hz | 2139 | steps | 11 | bits |

3752 | Hz | 2133 | steps | 11 | bits |

3761 | Hz | 2128 | steps | 11 | bits |

3771 | Hz | 2122 | steps | 11 | bits |

3782 | Hz | 2116 | steps | 11 | bits |

3791 | Hz | 2111 | steps | 11 | bits |

3802 | Hz | 2105 | steps | 11 | bits |

3811 | Hz | 2100 | steps | 11 | bits |

3822 | Hz | 2094 | steps | 11 | bits |

3831 | Hz | 2089 | steps | 11 | bits |

3842 | Hz | 2083 | steps | 11 | bits |

3851 | Hz | 2078 | steps | 11 | bits |

3861 | Hz | 2073 | steps | 11 | bits |

3872 | Hz | 2067 | steps | 11 | bits |

3881 | Hz | 2062 | steps | 11 | bits |

3891 | Hz | 2057 | steps | 11 | bits |

3902 | Hz | 2051 | steps | 11 | bits |

3911 | Hz | 2046 | steps | 10 | bits |

3921 | Hz | 2041 | steps | 10 | bits |

3931 | Hz | 2036 | steps | 10 | bits |